State & Metropolitan Politics

Name: Joseph Cobetto
Section: State & Metropolitan Politics
Professional Email: ussenator@hotmail.com
Professional Status: Graduate Student
Institution: University of Missouri, Columbia
Scheduling Preference: Saturday Morning
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title: Appellate Judges as Tribunes?: Appellate Judicial Elections, Campaign Expenditures and Executive-Judicial Relations in the States
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The diversity in selection methods for appellate judges in the states relative to the universally elected status of state governors does raise an important question as to the role that one's selection being popularly based can affect your ability to work with and even persuade other actors in government with respect to advancing one's policy goals. Employing a careful analysis of judicial and gubernatorial elections since 1990, this paper seeks to investigate the role campaign expenditures in state appellate elections contribute to any difference in the relative position of these elected judges to their state's governors. Special attention will be given to those judges normally elected to office being first appointed to office by either the governor or the state legislature to learn if this origin in one's judicial career affects the relative judicial independence of these judges to make decisions at odds with their state governor's policy interests.


Name: Anne Flaherty
Section: State & Metropolitan Politics
Professional Email: abena_us@yahoo.com
Professional Status: Associate Professor
Institution: Merrimack College
Scheduling Preference: Friday Morning
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title: States, American Indian Nations, and Intergovernmental Politics: The Uncertainty of Taxes
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American Indian nations are sovereign political entities with a government-to-government relationship with the federal government. Over time, through various policy shifts and state action, state governments have become more and more involved on reservations as well. This has presented a challenge for many tribes, who argue that states do not have that authority. One area of policy that has become controversial is the enforcement of state taxes on cigarette sales on reservations. This work evaluates the possibilities for tribal-state collaboration and/or conflict through the context of conflict over state enforcement of cigarette taxes for on-reservation purchases. This paper presents several related hypotheses, which are: 1- States with a history of regulatory and civil enforcement on reservation will be more likely to expect to enforce taxes on reservation. 2- States with an institutional collaborative body (legislative, executive, etc.) dedicated to Indian affairs will be more likely to develop collaborative relationships and agreements with tribes. 3- State governments with a potentially large financial loss due to on-reservation cigarette sales are more likely to seek to enforce cigarette taxes on reservation. Data on each state with federally recognized tribes (as well as on the tribes themselves) is currently being gathered to evaluate a range of variables and controls tied to the hypotheses above. The hypotheses will be evaluated using a statistical analysis (likely multi-nominal logit). Ultimately, I expect to find evidence that tribal-state collaboration and strong, positive intergovernmental relations are possible, but they require attention and effort.


Name: Beth Henschen
Section: State & Metropolitan Politics
Professional Email: bhenschen@emich.edu
Professional Status: Assistant Professor
Institution: Eastern Michigan University
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title: State of the Judiciary: What's the Message?
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Because we give considerable attention to the federal judiciary, we know less than we should about the political contexts in which state courts operate and how they interact with executives and legislatures. As head of the judicial branch of state government and as the administrative head of a state court system, a chief justice has the potential to wield influence in the conversation that takes place among judges, legislators, governors, and nongovernmental entities that have close connections to the courts. One public way chief justices participate in that “conversation” is through the State of the Judiciary messages they regularly deliver. Since 2005, nearly 300 State of the Judiciary messages have been given in 44 states. Yet there has been little systematic examination of these addresses. This project is funded by a 2015-2016 APSA Small Research Grant. It includes an analysis of the content of these messages, identifying themes over time, themes across states, and the frequency and nature of specific proposals for programs or policies. In addition, the research examines factors that may be related to the messages that are delivered, such as chief justice selection procedure, the presence of judicial councils in the state, the level of court budgetary authority, and whether the state judiciary has developed effective management systems and performance measures. Consideration is also given to how chief justices use State of the Judiciary messages to inform and educate relevant court audiences about the innovations that the judiciary has put in place and the accomplishments that have been realized. Here, being “part of the conversation” is more than requesting help from the legislature, the governor, or the bar to address specific needs. It is playing the part of salesperson for the branch of government one administers, and framing the issues that matter to courts in a way that makes them understood to other political actors and enhances public confidence in the state judicial system.


Name: J. Wesley Leckrone
Section: State & Metropolitan Politics
Professional Email: jwleckrone@widener.edu
Professional Status: Associate Professor
Institution: Widener University
Scheduling Preference: Thursday Afternoon
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Paper Title: Reviving the Concept of Civil Community: A Framework for Studying Cities of the Delaware Valley
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Co-author info: Michelle Atherton, Temple University, mjather@temple.edu, Benjamin Klein, Widener University, bvklein@mail.widener.edu
Co-presenter info: Michelle Atherton, Temple University, mjather@temple.edu, Benjamin Klein, Widener University, bvklein@mail.widener.edu
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Civil community is a concept developed by Daniel J. Elazar in his seminal study The Cities of the Prairie (1970). This multigenerational, multicommunity study, which continued for forty years (1960–2000), sought to trace, compare, and contrast political, social, and economic developments in ten medium-size Midwestern civil communities. The study focused on medium-size civil communities because, at the time of the study, they most closely reflected Americans’ preferences regarding where to live. The civil community is the comprehensive local political system that serves the city and surrounding area. Not every city has its own civil community. Some cities are too small, while other cities are too large to be classified as a civil community (Elazar believed the ideal population was between 40,000 and 250,000). A functioning civil community includes a variety of political institutions, including formal governments and governmental agencies, nonprofit organizations serving the public interest, local political parties, and interest groups. The civil community provides a wide range of activities and services for its residents that are influenced and determined by local expectations and demands. In short, the local political system is able to shape government services and activities to meet local needs. Civil communities do not exist in a vacuum. They are located within and must interact with larger political systems. In the United States these political systems are the state and nation, with their respective governments. The pressures exerted on civil communities, namely, complying with federal and state mandates while protecting local concerns, are at times in opposition. Our proposed paper is the beginning of a larger project to update the concept of civil community and to apply it to the Philadelphia metropolitan region. We have identified the following challenges to civil communities in the early twenty-first century and will incorporate them into a new model. The first results from the changes that have emerged during what Elazar labeled the “cybernetic frontier”. Technology and globalization allow people to be connected as never before. However, they are not bonded by a sense of geographical place that helps to build the common bond of civil community. Second, the focus on individualism, with people concentrating on their own needs rather than developing a common sense of purpose, hurts community self-determination. Finally, people increasingly view themselves as consumers of government services. In this market-oriented model of government, government is the provider of solutions to the problems of passive residents. However, civil community requires that citizens actively engage in problem solving to ensure collective decisions based on local preferences. This paper will seek to apply the updated concept of civil community to local governments in the Philadelphia metropolitan region. The first phase of the research will focus on the five county Pennsylvania portion of the Philadelphia metropolitan area. This region is home to more than four million people and 239 general purpose municipal governments. Our intent is to map out the web of cooperative arrangements and organizations in this area and then select and justify several cities for more extensive study in future research.


Name: test test
Section: Employment Service
Professional Email: test@test.net
Professional Status: Undergraduate Student
Institution: test university
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Paper Title: test
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just testing.