Parties, Interest Groups, Social Movements, & Electoral Behavior

Name: Brian Arbour
Section: Parties, Interest Groups, Social Movements, & Electoral Behavior
Professional Email: barbour@jjay.cuny.edu
Professional Status: Associate Professor
Institution: John Jay College, CUNY
Scheduling Preference: Friday Morning
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title: Racial Attitudes and the Highland South in 2008 and 2012
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Republicans have made significant long-term gains in the Appalachian Mountain region and the upper South in the last political generation. My previous research has shown that this is a long-term secular trend, but that it accelerated and intensified in the elections since Barack Obama became the nation's leading Democrat. This papers examines the impact of racial prejudice and racial resentment on recent election results in this region of the country. The upper South and Appalachias have traditionally had relatively low African-American populations, but have demographic characteristics correlated with racial conservatism. Thus, there is reason to think that racial attitudes mattered less in this region than urban areas or the deep South—which have higher shares of African-American population—in previous elections. With the rise of the first African-American major party nominee, these racial attitudes became more important in voting decisions in the 2008 and 2012 elections. I will use contemporary public opinion data to compare the role of racial prejudice and racial resentment in the Appalachian Mountain and upper South regions to Using contemporary public opinion data, I will compare the role of racial prejudice and racial resentment in the upper South and the Appalachian Mountains to not only other regions of the country in 2008 and 2012, but to previous elections in the upper South and the Appalachian Mountains.


Name: Lonce Bailey
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Institution: Shippensburg University
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Name: Thomas Baldino
Section: Parties, Interest Groups, Social Movements, & Electoral Behavior
Professional Email: thomas.baldino@wilkes.edu
Professional Status: Full Professor
Institution: Wilkes University
Scheduling Preference: Saturday Morning
Proposal Type: Roundtable
Participation Type: Moderator
Roundtable Title: “Promises and Plans: The Art of Campaigning and the Reality of Governing in a Polarized Era"
Roundtable Description: Presidential campaigns since 2000 have witnessed candidates who have vowed to bring dramatic changes or to advance policies to significantly improve the US political system, people's lives, and/or make America great again. Yet, winning candidate appear to be unable to deliver on many of the campaign pledges. Our roundtable will explore this problem from several perspectives, and consider the heightened state of polarization in Congress and within the electorate as significant factors contributing to the problem.
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Roundtable Description: Presidential campaigns since 2000 have witnessed candidates who have vowed to bring dramatic changes or to advance policies to significantly improve the US political system, people's lives, and/or make America great again. Yet, winning candidate appear to be unable to deliver on many of the campaign pledges. Our roundtable will explore this problem from several perspectives, and consider the heightened state of polarization in Congress and within the electorate as significant factors contributing to the problem.
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Name: Lawrence Becker
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Institution: California State University, Northridge
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Name: Mark Brewer
Section: Parties, Interest Groups, Social Movements, & Electoral Behavior
Professional Email: mark.brewer@umit.maine.edu
Professional Status: Full Professor
Institution: University of Maine
Scheduling Preference: Friday Afternoon
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title: Populism in American Presidential Elections
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Populism undoubtedly has a long history in the politics of the United States, but this history is too often fuzzy around the edges. Additionally, what exactly is meant by "populism" is frequently ambiguous and ill-defined. Finally, who subscribes to populism is more often asserted than demonstrated, even in those instances where the phenomenon itself is relatively clearly identified and explained. The larger project of which this paper is an early component aims to address these intellectual and empirical shortcomings. In this paper, I will engage in a thorough examination of the substance of populism in American politics. All elements of American populism—its championing of the common people, it rural roots, its anti-elitism, anti-intellectualism, and anti-government views, and its religious and cultural dimensions—will be explored. The paper will close by using the American National Election Studies to begin to empirically flesh out the degree to which various groups in American society subscribe to populist views and how these views play out in American presidential elections.


Name: Bruce Caswell
Section: Parties, Interest Groups, Social Movements, & Electoral Behavior
Professional Email: caswell@rowan.edu
Professional Status: Full Professor
Institution: Rowan University
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Participation Type: Moderator
Roundtable Title: New Rules? Have Sanders and Trump Fundamentally Changed the Parties?
Roundtable Description: Bruce Caswell, Rowan University (Emeritus), Chair Danielle Gougon, Rowan University Garrison Nelson, University of Vermont Shayla Nunnally, University of Connecticut Erin O'Brien, University of Massachusetts-Boston Specific topics of discussion to be determined by 2016 campaign. Some possible of discussion: Have Sanders and Trump really brought new voters and activists into the parties? Have the Democrats lost blue-collar white voters and millennials? How does the vote coalition and composition in this election compare this election to previous elections? Did the "fundamentals" hold or are new factors determining election outcomes? Will the parties have to re-think their presidential nominations processes? Given that neither Trump nor Clinton was the biggest spender in their party's nomination process, has the role of money and TV advertising changed?
Paper Title: The Civil Rights Plank of 1948 and the Emergence of the Modern Democratic Party
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Roundtable Description: Bruce Caswell, Rowan University (Emeritus), Chair Danielle Gougon, Rowan University Garrison Nelson, University of Vermont Shayla Nunnally, University of Connecticut Erin O'Brien, University of Massachusetts-Boston Specific topics of discussion to be determined by 2016 campaign. Some possible of discussion: Have Sanders and Trump really brought new voters and activists into the parties? Have the Democrats lost blue-collar white voters and millennials? How does the vote coalition and composition in this election compare this election to previous elections? Did the "fundamentals" hold or are new factors determining election outcomes? Will the parties have to re-think their presidential nominations processes? Given that neither Trump nor Clinton was the biggest spender in their party's nomination process, has the role of money and TV advertising changed?
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This year the Democrats met in Philadelphia for the first time since 1948. The last time the Democrats met in Philadelphia the party adopted its first civil rights plank as a minority plank proposed by Hubert Humphrey and liberal activists. The adoption of this plank set in motion a series of events that shaped the modern party system, the separation of the southern states from the Democratic coalition and the Democrats dependence upon minority and liberal voters. This paper chronicles these developments from the New Deal to the 2016 election.


Name: Nicholas Charron
Section: Parties, Interest Groups, Social Movements, & Electoral Behavior
Professional Email: nicholas.charron@pol.gu.se
Professional Status: Associate Professor
Institution: University of Gothenburg (Sweden)
Scheduling Preference: Thursday Morning
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title: Insider or Outsider? Grand Corruption and Electoral Accountability
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While democratic accountability is widely expected to reduce corruption, citizens to a surprisingly large extent opt to forgo their right to protest and voice complaints and refrain from using their electoral right to punish corrupt politicians. This article examines how grand corruption (GC) and elite collusion influences electoral accountability, and in particular citizens’ willingness to punish corrupt incumbents. Using new regional level data across 21 European countries, we show that the level of societal grand corruption in which a voter finds herself systematically affects how she responds to a political corruption scandal. Our findings provide clear empirical evidence that high levels of elite collusion create an environment where corrupt incumbents are more likely to be re-elected, undermining the effectiveness of elections in curbing political corruption. Grand corruption increases loyalty to corrupt politicians, demobilizes the citizenry and crafts a deep divide between insiders, or potential beneficiaries of the system, and outsiders, left on the sidelines of the distribution of benefits. This explains why not even outsiders successfully channel their discontent into effective electoral punishment. The study thereby shows how and why pervasive elite collusion undermines the very foundations for electoral accountability.


Name: Dino Christenson
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Institution: Boston University
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Name: Jay Cincotti
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Institution: Massachusetts Democratic Party
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Name: William Crotty
Section: Parties, Interest Groups, Social Movements, & Electoral Behavior
Professional Email: w.crotty@neu.edu
Professional Status: Full Professor
Institution: Northeastern university
Scheduling Preference: Saturday Morning
Proposal Type: Roundtable
Participation Type: Panelist
Roundtable Title: “Promises and Plans: The Art of Campaigning and the Reality of Governing in a Polarized Era"
Roundtable Description: Presidential campaigns since 2000 have witnessed candidates who have vowed to bring dramatic changes or to advance policies to significantly improve the US political system, people's lives, and/or make America great again. Yet, winning candidate appear to be unable to deliver on many of the campaign pledges. Our roundtable will explore this problem from several perspectives, and consider the heightened state of polarization in Congress and within the electorate as significant factors contributing to the problem.
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Roundtable Description: Presidential campaigns since 2000 have witnessed candidates who have vowed to bring dramatic changes or to advance policies to significantly improve the US political system, people's lives, and/or make America great again. Yet, winning candidate appear to be unable to deliver on many of the campaign pledges. Our roundtable will explore this problem from several perspectives, and consider the heightened state of polarization in Congress and within the electorate as significant factors contributing to the problem.
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Name: Alison Dagnes
Section: Popular Culture & Politics
Professional Email: addagn@ship.edu
Professional Status: Full Professor
Institution: Shippensburg University
Scheduling Preference: Friday Morning
Proposal Type: Roundtable
Participation Type: Moderator
Roundtable Title: The Future of the Parties Post 2016: This Time We are Serious.
Roundtable Description: This panel features five perspectives on the future of the American party system in the wake of the 2016 elections. An annual NPSA roundtable, this year we expect a more consequential conversation in the aftermath of the remarkable 2016 campaign.
Paper Title: Targeted Exposure: Modern Political Messaging
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Roundtable Description: This panel features five perspectives on the future of the American party system in the wake of the 2016 elections. An annual NPSA roundtable, this year we expect a more consequential conversation in the aftermath of the remarkable 2016 campaign.
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Marshall McLuhan wrote that the “medium is the message,” where a media form itself has a profound impact on how a message is understood. There is little doubt that McLuhan was right in our era when the “media system” is a vast, loosely connected conglomeration of outlets, people, and organizations, all employing different communication styles. McLuhan’s work, and later work by Neal Postman, argues that not only do new technologies revolutionize the way we communicate, they change the way we think writ large. As we contort our messaging to fit within 140-character confines and hone our statements for increasingly short soundbites, the older media literature (which pre-dates the advent of cable and the internet) remains, rather incredibly, perceptive and relevant. But there is something more at play now, where not only does the medium impact the message, but anyone can have their very own messenger. In the political media, this has meant an increasingly complicated system that blends mediated and unmediated messaging, and includes not only politicians and partisans, but also myriad outside actors and influencers. This paper is the second chapter of a new book examining the colossal modern political media system. It examines the abundance of media, the subsequent changes to journalism and to political communication, and the theoretical speculations about the consequences of such a system.


Name: Kenneth Dautrich
Section: Popular Culture & Politics
Professional Email: dautrichkj@yahoo.com
Professional Status: Associate Professor
Institution: University of Connecticut
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
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Paper Title: Generation Z and the Future of the First Amendment
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“Generation Z and the Future of the First Amendment” The current generation of high school and college students, dubbed as “Generation Z,” is at a critical lifecycle stage in terms of their development of political attitudes. The period in which these attitudes are forming includes a number of important events and circumstances (such as the battle of free expression vs. freedom from offensive speech in high schools and college campuses, presidential candidates advocating limits on freedom for certain groups, and access to social media allowing anyone to publish material to a mass audience) bearing on freedom of speech, one of the most important values underlying American political culture. This paper explores Generation Z’s attitudes about freedom of speech in this unique period of American history when free expression rights are being challenged while at the same time the ability to express oneself on a mass basis is readily available. Questions addressed include: How does Gen Z value freedom of speech? What factors bear on their level of support? How does Gen Z compare to older generations in their opinion about free speech rights? This paper draws on original data from more than a decade of national scientific surveys of both the American adult population and the American high school student population, facilitating a comparison of Gen Z, Millennials, Gen X, and Baby Boomers. These surveys, which have been supported through grants from the Knight Foundatuion and the Newseum Institute, have been conducted annually since 2004, providing a comparison of Gen Z and Millennials differ in their attitudes about freedom of speech at similar stages in the lifecyle.


Name: Iva Deutchman
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Professional Email: deutchman@hws.edu
Professional Status: Full Professor
Institution: Hobart William Smith
Scheduling Preference: Saturday Morning
Proposal Type: Roundtable
Participation Type: Panelist
Roundtable Title: “Promises and Plans: The Art of Campaigning and the Reality of Governing in a Polarized Era"
Roundtable Description: Presidential campaigns since 2000 have witnessed candidates who have vowed to bring dramatic changes or to advance policies to significantly improve the US political system, people's lives, and/or make America great again. Yet, winning candidate appear to be unable to deliver on many of the campaign pledges. Our roundtable will explore this problem from several perspectives, and consider the heightened state of polarization in Congress and within the electorate as significant factors contributing to the problem.
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Roundtable Description: Presidential campaigns since 2000 have witnessed candidates who have vowed to bring dramatic changes or to advance policies to significantly improve the US political system, people's lives, and/or make America great again. Yet, winning candidate appear to be unable to deliver on many of the campaign pledges. Our roundtable will explore this problem from several perspectives, and consider the heightened state of polarization in Congress and within the electorate as significant factors contributing to the problem.
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Name: Gemma Dipoppa
Section: Parties, Interest Groups, Social Movements, & Electoral Behavior
Professional Email: gemmad@sas.upenn.edu
Professional Status: Graduate Student
Institution: University of Pennsylvania
Scheduling Preference: Saturday Morning
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title: How to Make Politicians Obey: Evidence on the Strategic Use of Violence by Organized Crime
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Co-author info: Gianmarco Daniele, Institut d’Economia Barcelona (IEB), University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; email: daniele.gianmarco@gmail.com; Phone: +32 486813871
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This paper exploits a novel dataset of attacks towards local Italian administrators to study how organized crime strategically uses violence against politicians to influence policy-making. We provide causal evidence that the probability of being a target of violence increases in the period right after the elections, but only in regions with a high presence of organized crime. This pattern suggests that organized crime uses violence strategically and systematically right after elections, as an initial warning against any troublesome policy. In line with this interpretation, we show that attacks towards politicians are more likely when elections lead to the formation of a new government.


Name: Jerold Duquette
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Professional Email: Jeroldduquette@comcast.net
Professional Status: Associate Professor
Institution: Central Connecticut State University
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
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Name: Haldun Evrenk
Section: Parties, Interest Groups, Social Movements, & Electoral Behavior
Professional Email: haldun_evrenk@yahoo.com
Professional Status: Full Professor
Institution: TOBB-ETU
Scheduling Preference: Friday Afternoon
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Paper Title: Three party competition when media influences voters' perception of candidate charisma
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Using a formal (mathematical) model of political competition among three candidates who differ in their charisma, I study the effects of media on voters' welfare and equilibrium policy. In the model, voters care about both the policy and the charisma of the candidates. The media (a single outlet) cannot change the relative rankings of the candidates in terms of their charisma, i.e., cannot make a charismatic candidate non-charismatic and vice versa, but it can influence the weight voters put on a candidate's charisma vs. candidate's policy (salience) when voting, by emphasizing the importance of policy issues or charisma. Any change in salience affects equilibrium policies proposed by the candidates, and, thus, voters’ welfare. I consider four different types of media: (i) no slant (NS) media does not try to influence salience, (ii) welfare maximizing (WM) media manipulate the salience so that the equilibrium policy is as close to the welfare maximizing policy as possible, (iii) partisan (P) media tries to move equilibrium policy as close to its most preferred policy as possible, (iv) candidate controlled (CC) media is controlled by the most charismatic candidate (always the winner in our model) and tries to increase the importance of the charisma in voting decision (and, thus, the charismatic candidate's equilibrium vote share) as much as possible. I find that even the WM type media can't achieve socially optimal level of welfare no matter how powerful and well intentioned it is. On the other hand, manipulation by either P or CC type media is not always welfare decreasing either. If the parameters of the model are such that the most charismatic candidate's policy and the median voter are always at opposite sides of the mean voter, then the broadcasts of CC media, and any P media whose ideal is even further from the mean voter than the policy of the winning candidate is, are always (and, equally) welfare reducing.


Name: Michael Fauntroy
Section: Parties, Interest Groups, Social Movements, & Electoral Behavior
Professional Email: michaelfauntroy@yahoo.com
Professional Status: Associate Professor
Institution: Howard University
Scheduling Preference: Friday Afternoon
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title: Conservatism and Black Voter Suppression
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We have seen during the last half decade or so a consistent effort to tighten voter participation. These efforts have had consistent sponsors and consistent targets. Conservative forces around the country rewritten election laws to facilitate voter suppression, particularly targeting African Americans (virtually all of the restrictive policy proposals advanced in the period between the 2010 and 2014 elections were advanced by conservatives). This paper will define, describe, and discuss the role of conservatism in the suppression of African American voters. Voting has been a key variable in the achievement of significant, change in the social, political, and economic position of African Americans. From Reconstruction to the New Deal and from the Voting Rights Act of 1965 to the election of the first African American President of the United States, the vote has been a freedom mechanism for Black people. A marginalized populace whose hands once picked cotton could suddenly pick Presidents, Governors, members of Congress, and other officials who would have to deal with their issues if they wanted to be reelected. The emergence of the Black vote changed the landscape of American politics.


Name: Danielle Gougon
Section: Teaching, Learning & the Profession
Professional Email: gougon@rowan.edu
Professional Status: Assistant Professor
Institution: Rowan University
Scheduling Preference: Friday Morning
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title: Professional Pressure: An analysis of how political science is responding to calls to professionalize the discipline.
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What are you going to do with that major? Higher education in the U.S. is under pressure to demonstrate the ways in which it is preparing undergraduate students for the workforce. Professional development is no longer a task reserved for the campus career center or counselor; disciplines, and their respective faculty, are increasingly being asked to integrate specific career training and skill building into their curricula and courses, often with little or no guidance in how to accomplish this task. This paper seeks to understand what political science is doing as a field to respond to the most recent call to “professionalize” the discipline. The paper will begin by providing a macro-level survey of “the state of the discipline” and assess the ways in which leading political science organizations (such as APSA) and journals are addressing professional development of undergraduates. The paper will also provide a micro-level analysis of initiatives taken by individual departments and programs which might provide guidance on best practices for integrating professional development into our own programs.


Name: William Harrison
Section: Parties, Interest Groups, Social Movements, & Electoral Behavior
Professional Email: billharrison11@yahoo.ie
Professional Status: Assistant Professor
Institution: Fairmont State University
Scheduling Preference: Thursday Afternoon
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title: The Roots of Green
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ABSTRACT “The Roots of Green” There can be little doubt that humanity has a significant and growing impact on the environment. In response, concerned people have joined to promote their recognition and resolution. This movement attempts to enact legislation and facilitate international treaties to deal with such matters as ozone depletion, acid rain, and air quality. These most obvious issues focus on individuals’ production of deleterious materials or consumption of scarce resources but, of course, are no more important than the population growth that drives them exponentially. The concerned (“green”) environmental movement is sometimes confused with a political movement also calling itself “Green”. A major concern of the political Green movement is wealth redistribution, having little to do with managing humanity’s impact on the environment. This may explain why scant attention is paid, and even wholesale acceptance given, to population and pollution problems of the developing world. It can, in, in fact, be argued that the objectives of these two shades of green are antagonistic. In the light of this antagonism, it is important for the well-being of our environment that we recognize the roles of the several issues and of the political movements that support them so as to avoid self-defeating actions. These issues are explored in this paper.


Name: Jillian Jaeger
Section: Parties, Interest Groups, Social Movements, & Electoral Behavior
Professional Email: jnjaeger@bu.edu
Professional Status: Graduate Student
Institution: Boston University
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title: Electing Black Mayors: Does Party Information Make a Difference?
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Local elections are generally perceived as arenas where the personal attributes of a candidate - and especially his or her race - determine vote-choice. I use an original data set of U.S. mayoral elections from 1995 to the present to argue that the influence of race is mediated by party. Insofar as the party affiliation of candidates is made salient in an election, this information moderates the influence of race as a factor in vote-choice. The implications of this argument are that minority candidates have tools that can be deployed to overcome racial prejudice, and that local elections - even officially "nonpartisan" elections - are not as candidate-centered as many analysts have imagined.


Name: Sarah Beth Kitch
Section: American Political Thought
Professional Email: sarah.beth.kitch@gmail.com
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Institution: Princeton University
Scheduling Preference: Friday Afternoon
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title: Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Prophetic Voice
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One of the most significant political problems in mid-twentieth century America is racial segregation. As he confronts Americans on segregation, Martin Luther King, Jr. (1929-1968) becomes the leader of a moral and political revolution that seeks a “substance-filled positive peace, where all men will respect the dignity and worth of human personality.” While one tendency of citizens in liberal democratic society is to view religion as a source of injustice or division, King speaks in a religious language and narrative he finds essential to bringing justice and healing to the political community. At the heart of King’s political theology is his prophetic stance. This prophetic influence is the source of the guiding insight King calls creative suffering. King asks us to reject the politics of despair and attend instead to the ways that grace can come through suffering. Moreover, as he asks us to be creatively maladjusted, King offers an ethical and strategic approach to racism and poverty. I attend to the influences that shape King’s prophetic stance. I trace the implications of this dimension of his thought and action for citizenship. And I connect his participation in the prophetic tradition with his understanding of the relationship between love and justice in politics. My aim throughout is to show why and how King’s prophetic view of the human person and the requirements of justice shape his approach to the civil rights conflict.


Name: Jonathan Knuckey
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Professional Email: jonathan.knuckey@ucf.edu
Professional Status: Associate Professor
Institution: University of Central Florida
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Paper Title: A Different Kind of Republican? Sources of Affective Evaluation Toward Donald Trump
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Co-author info: Myunghee Kim, University of Central Floridamyunghee.kim@ucf.edu
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This paper uses the 2016 American National Election Pilot Study to test several competing hypotheses concerning affective evaluations of Republican presidential nominee, Donald Trump. Specifically, Trump's evaluations are compared to that of other Republican presidential candidates, focusing on racial, economic and cultural variables to explore commonalities and differences between support for Trump and other Republicans.


Name: Mack Mariani
Section: Parties, Interest Groups, Social Movements, & Electoral Behavior
Professional Email: marianim@xavier.edu
Professional Status: Associate Professor
Institution: Xavier University
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Paper Title: The Impact of Gender Quotas in the 2016 Irish General Election: The Centrality of Candidate Selection
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Co-author info: Fiona Buckley – University College Cork; f.buckley@ucc.ie Claire McGing – Maynooth University; claire.mcging@mumail.ie Timothy J. White – Xavier University: white@xavier.edu
Co-presenter info: Fiona Buckley, University College Cork; fbuckley@ucc.ie
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One of the major inhibitions to women’s representation in Ireland and elsewhere has been the candidate selection process. The introduction of gender quotas in Ireland based on the new electoral law passed in 2012 dramatically impacted women’s candidate selection in the 2016 national election. Given the historically low level of women’s selection as candidates in Ireland, the electoral law serves as a natural experiment to determine the efficacy of gender quotas in improving women’s descriptive representation. The Electoral Act of 2012 specified that at the next Dáil election political parties had to select at least 30 per cent male candidates and at least 30 per cent female candidates or lose half of their state funding. This paper examines the effect of the gender quotas on women’s candidacy and election in 2016. Previous research analyzed the under-representation of women in the 2007 and 2011 elections focusing on the effects of party affiliation, local office-holding, Dáil service, district magnitude, campaign spending, family dynasty, and demographic factors (such as age, marital status, profession) on candidates’ (female and male) electoral prospects (studying first preference votes, percentage of district quota, and ultimate election). Analysis of these elections revealed that previous experience in local office is a key springboard to higher office for both men and women. However, opportunities to increase the level of women’s representation in the Dáil are limited by the fact that in Ireland few women serve in local office. We will investigate how this reality impacted the ability to translate increased candidacies for women based on the gender quota to increased election of women in the 2016 election.


Name: Luigi Marini
Section: Parties, Interest Groups, Social Movements, & Electoral Behavior
Professional Email: luigimarini@gmail.com
Professional Status: Graduate Student
Institution: Nuffield College, University of Oxford
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
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Paper Title: The Politics of Party Colors: Use and Perception of Non-Verbal Cues of Ideology
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Colors are a central feature of the political arena. Parties use colors to forge a distinctive brand image, to evoke recognition and to reinforce sentiments of group allegiance. Colors are used in political campaign and become culturally associated with political movements and ideologies. Building on a composite literature in visual cognition, psychology and marketing, this paper analyzes how political parties use colors in their images and how individual voters respond to color stimuli. I collect new data on the color hues in party logos in Western European multi-party systems and present descriptive evidence that party families adopt more similar colors the more ideologically cohesive. More generally, a correlation seems to exist between ideological positioning on a left--right scale and the hue value on a color spectrum. Colors are also used for the practical purpose of differentiation, as shown by an increase in the color range covered by the emergence of new challenger parties. Given the persistent patterns of color use by political parties, we expect individual voters to attribute to colors strong context-dependent and culturally learned meanings. I hypothesize that colors function as a low-level heuristics for voters, reinforcing or replacing the ideological content of political messages. I test this hypothesis running an experiment where respondents are asked to evaluate policy statements on a left--right or liberal--conservative scale, while the background color is manipulated and randomly assigned. The recent development in American politics of associating blue with the Democratic Party and red with the Republican Party -- in a reversal of European traditions relating red with the socialist left and blue with the conservative right -- offers a unique opportunity to study how the psychological effects of color stimuli are dependent on context and cultural learning or more deeply embedded in human evolution and biology. The study has important implications for our understanding of party-voter interactions. Moreover, it can directly inform party strategies and media reporting, since a choice of colors can have unintended effects.


Name: Michael McCabe
Section: Parties, Interest Groups, Social Movements, & Electoral Behavior
Professional Email: michael.patrick.mccabe@gmail.com
Professional Status: Graduate Student
Institution: Graduate Center, CUNY
Scheduling Preference: Saturday Afternoon
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Paper Title: Revisiting the realignment strategy: Building a 21st Century Worker's Party in the US
Panel Title: Lessons from the past: Rethinking contemporary left theory and praxis
Panel Description: This panel seeks to discuss the decline in leftist theory and practice since the progressive era of the 19th and 20th centuries to a point of near non-existence. The very few progressive movements that have occurred in recent times have failed to gain any momentum. Why has this decline been so acute within the last 20 to 30 years? Which psychological, economic and social situations lead to this decline and prevent it from gaining momentum? What can the left do to generate the momentum progressive politics desperately needs? With the few movements that have occurred within this time frame, why did they fail to gain traction? These are the questions this panel will seek to elicit a dialogue with by using past theory and practice to diagnose the issues of the contemporary left. Through this panel, we hope to demonstrate that the contemporary left will not achieve anything substantial without returning to and integrating the systematic tactics, strategies, and perspectives leftist literature from the 19th and 20th centuries discussed.
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While acknowledging the importance of political protest, left intellectuals including Max Shachtman and Michael Harrington understood that a singular strategy of protest alienates the left from more direct control over shaping politics. It was in response to this realization that they advanced a strategy of party realignment. The goal of the realignment strategy was for radical left organizations including left-leaning labor unions to become embedded in the Democratic Party apparatus, so as to have influence over the Party’s platform and candidate selection and nomination process. However, as the Democratic Party became increasingly centrist throughout the 1980s and 1990s, the failure of the realignment strategy reinforced the view of many on the left that the Democratic Party is structurally incapable of progressive transformation. Fast forward to the current presidential election, and the sustained efforts by Democratic Party insiders to undermine the candidacy of Bernie Sanders might be viewed as yet another example of the Party’s inherent hostility toward progressive politics. This paper rejects this notion, arguing instead that the realignment strategy of the 1970s was undermined by exogenous factors including a wave of fiscal crises that facilitated a backlash against progressive politics that were widely blamed for bloated public sector budgets. It additionally argues that by abandoning the realignment strategy, the left forfeited its ability to contest those centrist actors within the Democratic Party who sought to undermine the Sanders Campaign; albeit at a time when the public has become increasingly supportive of social democratic policies.


Name: Kerra McCorkle- Akanbi
Section: American Political Thought
Professional Email: mccorklek@mail.umsl.edu
Professional Status: Graduate Student
Institution: University of Missouri-Saint Louis
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title: Social Media as a Tool for Political Though and Express for Underrepresented Populations
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In recent years, a growing number of social science studies have examined the relationship between social media and politics. This paper examines whether underrepresented populations use social media to advocate for social change and express thoughts on political and social issues. While past studies have determined that political elites are most likely to use social media for political expressions, there remains gaps on how social media is used by non-dominate groups. Through examining survey research from the PEW Research Center and the Center for Information, Black Youth Project, & Research on Civic Learning and Engagement (C.I.R.C.L.E), I use regression analysis to investigate social media as a source for political knowledge that influences political behavior. As well as determine if members of the minority community have found a virtual arena where their political desires and concerns can be acknowledged. This investigation will offer social scientists a better understanding of how marginalized groups navigate the political terrain in the digital age.


Name: James Melcher
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Institution: University of Maine at Farmington
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Name: Nicole Mellow
Section: Parties, Interest Groups, Social Movements, & Electoral Behavior
Professional Email: nmellow@williams.edu
Professional Status: Full Professor
Institution: Williams College
Scheduling Preference: Saturday Morning
Proposal Type: Roundtable
Participation Type: Panelist
Roundtable Title: “Promises and Plans: The Art of Campaigning and the Reality of Governing in a Polarized Era"
Roundtable Description: Presidential campaigns since 2000 have witnessed candidates who have vowed to bring dramatic changes or to advance policies to significantly improve the US political system, people's lives, and/or make America great again. Yet, winning candidate appear to be unable to deliver on many of the campaign pledges. Our roundtable will explore this problem from several perspectives, and consider the heightened state of polarization in Congress and within the electorate as significant factors contributing to the problem.
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Roundtable Description: Presidential campaigns since 2000 have witnessed candidates who have vowed to bring dramatic changes or to advance policies to significantly improve the US political system, people's lives, and/or make America great again. Yet, winning candidate appear to be unable to deliver on many of the campaign pledges. Our roundtable will explore this problem from several perspectives, and consider the heightened state of polarization in Congress and within the electorate as significant factors contributing to the problem.
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Name: Jerry Mileur
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Institution: University of Massachusetts
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Name: Sidney Milkis
Section: Parties, Interest Groups, Social Movements, & Electoral Behavior
Professional Email: smm8e@eservices.virginia.edu
Professional Status: Full Professor
Institution: University of Virginia
Scheduling Preference: Saturday Morning
Proposal Type: Roundtable
Participation Type: Panelist
Roundtable Title: “Promises and Plans: The Art of Campaigning and the Reality of Governing in a Polarized Era"
Roundtable Description: Presidential campaigns since 2000 have witnessed candidates who have vowed to bring dramatic changes or to advance policies to significantly improve the US political system, people's lives, and/or make America great again. Yet, winning candidate appear to be unable to deliver on many of the campaign pledges. Our roundtable will explore this problem from several perspectives, and consider the heightened state of polarization in Congress and within the electorate as significant factors contributing to the problem.
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Roundtable Description: Presidential campaigns since 2000 have witnessed candidates who have vowed to bring dramatic changes or to advance policies to significantly improve the US political system, people's lives, and/or make America great again. Yet, winning candidate appear to be unable to deliver on many of the campaign pledges. Our roundtable will explore this problem from several perspectives, and consider the heightened state of polarization in Congress and within the electorate as significant factors contributing to the problem.
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